medical science

Joseph G. Hamilton and the health effects of radioactive isotopes

Joseph G. Hamilton and the health effects of radioactive isotopes

On November 11, 1907, American professor of Medical Physics, Experimental Medicine, General Medicine, and Experimental Radiology Joseph Gilbert Hamilton was born. Hamilton studied the medical effects of exposure to radioactive isotopes, which also included the use of unsuspecting human subjects. Joseph Hamilton joined the University of California and earned his Bachelors degree in Chemistry in 1929. He continued his education and studied medicine in Berkeley and also worked at the University of California…
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Sir Richard Doll and the Risks of Smoking

Sir Richard Doll and the Risks of Smoking

On October 28, 1912, British physiologist and epidemologist Sir Richard Doll was born. Doll was a pioneer in research linking smoking to health problems. With Ernst Wynder, Bradford Hill and Evarts Graham, he was credited with being the first to prove that smoking caused lung cancer and increased the risk of heart disease. Sir Richard Doll studied medicine at St Thomas’s Hospital Medical School, King’s College London where he graduated in 1937.…
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Jean Dausset and the Major Histocompatibility Complex

Jean Dausset and the Major Histocompatibility Complex

On October 19, 1916,  French immunologist Jean Dausset was born. Dausset received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1980 along with Baruj Benacerraf and George Davis Snell for their discovery and characterization of the genes making the major histocompatibility complex. Jean-Baptiste-Gabriel-Joachim Dausset’s father worked at the Bayonne Hospital at Biarritz. After the family moved to Paris, Dausset began his formal education and later studied medicine at the University of Paris. Already at…
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Walter Bradford Cannon and Homeostasis

Walter Bradford Cannon and Homeostasis

On October 1, 1871, American physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon was born. Cannon coined the term fight or flight response, and he expanded on Claude Bernard’s concept of homeostasis. Homeostasis is the property of a system within an animal in which a variable, such as the concentration of a substance in solution, is actively regulated to remain very nearly constant. Examples of homeostasis include the regulation of body temperature, the pH of extracellular fluid, or…
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John Boyd Orr and his Nutrition Research

John Boyd Orr and his Nutrition Research

On September 23, 1880, Scottish teacher, doctor, biologist and politician John Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd-Orr was born. Boyd Orr received the Nobel Peace Prize for his scientific research into nutrition and his work as the first Director-General of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to eliminate world hunger. John Boyd Orr won a Queen’s Scholarship to study at a teacher training college in Glasgow when he was 19 years old.…
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Charles Nicolle and the Transmission of Typhus

Charles Nicolle and the Transmission of Typhus

On September 21, 1866, French bacteriologist Charles Juley Henry Nicolle was born. Nicolle was awarded the 1928 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his identification of lice as the transmitter of epidemic typhus. Charles Nicolle was probably inspired to join the field of medicine because his father Eugène Nicolle was a doctor in the French city Rouen. Nicolle attended the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen and earned his M.D. in 1893 from the Pasteur Institute.…
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Duchenne de Boulogne’s Research in Neurology

Duchenne de Boulogne’s Research in Neurology

On September 17, 1806, French neurologist Duchenne de Boulogne was born. Duchenne de Boulogne revived Galvani‘s research and greatly advanced the science of electrophysiology. The era of modern neurology developed from Duchenne‘s understanding of neural pathways and his diagnostic innovations including deep tissue biopsy, nerve conduction tests (NCS), and clinical photography. He was first to describe several nervous and muscular disorders and, in developing medical treatment for them, created electrodiagnosis and electrotherapy. Guillaume-Benjamin…
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Paul Gerson Unna and Dermatopathology

Paul Gerson Unna and Dermatopathology

On September 8, 1850, German dermatologist Paul Gerson Unna was born. Unna soon specialized in dermatology and became one of the pioneers in dermatopathology. He became known internationally in his field after writing a book on Histopathology of Skin Diseases (1884), which became a classic work. His name is also remembered for the Unna-Pappenheim stain, the most common stain for blood smears. Paul Unna was born in Hamburg, the son of Moritz…
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Hans Adolf Krebs and the Krebs Cycle

Hans Adolf Krebs and the Krebs Cycle

On August 25, 1900, German-born British physician and biochemist Hans Adolf Krebs was born. Krebs was the pioneer scientist in study of cellular respiration, a biochemical pathway in cells for production of energy. He is best known for his discoveries of two important chemical reactions in the body, namely the urea cycle and the citric acid cycle. The latter, the key sequence of metabolic reactions that produces energy in cells, often eponymously…
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E. Morton Jellinek and the Causes of Alcoholism

E. Morton Jellinek and the Causes of Alcoholism

On August 15, 1890, American biostatistician and physiologist E. Morton Jellinek was born. Jellinek was a pioneer in the scientific study of the nature and causes of alcoholism and in descriptions of its symptomatology. He was an early proponent of the disease theory of alcoholism, arguing with great persuasiveness that alcoholics should be treated as sick people. Born in New York City, USA, Jellinek studied biostatistics and physiology at the University of…
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