medical science

Paracelsus – a Typical Renaissance Scientist

Paracelsus – a Typical Renaissance Scientist

On November 11, 1493, Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, aka Paracelsus, the famous Renaissance physician, botanist, alchemist, astrologer, and general occultist was born. “All is interrelated. Heaven and earth, air and water. All are but one thing; not four, not two and not three, but one. Where they are not together, there is only an incomplete piece.” – Paracelsus – Collected Writings Vol. I (1926) edited by Bernhard Aschner, p. 110…
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Alexander Fleming and the Accidental Discovery of Penicillin

Alexander Fleming and the Accidental Discovery of Penicillin

On September 3, 1928, Scottish pharmacologist Alexander Fleming by chance and because of his notorious untidyness discovered Penicillin. “One sometimes finds, what one is not looking for. When I woke up just after dawn on September 28, 1928, I certainly didn’t plan to revolutionize all medicine by discovering the world’s first antibiotic, or bacteria killer. But I suppose that was exactly what I did.” — Alexander Fleming [11] Alexander Fleming was born on August…
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The Legend of Elizabeth Báthory, the Blood Countess

The Legend of Elizabeth Báthory, the Blood Countess

How far would you go to maintain your youth and your beauty? While today most people have become a victim of the cosmetic industry and (fortunately) only a few really dare to undergo cosmetic surgery, eternal youth and beauty is not only a subject of today’s affluent society. No, it’s a prominent topic throughout history dating also back into mythology, such as the story of Narcissus, a young Greek hunter of extraordinary…
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Galenus of Pergamon – The most Accomplished Physician of Antiquity

Galenus of Pergamon – The most Accomplished Physician of Antiquity

In 129 AD, Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire Aelius Galenus also referred to as Claudius Galenus was born. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic. “Employment is Nature’s physician, and is essential to human happiness.” — attributed to Galenus, In: Day’s Collacon: an Encyclopaedia of Prose…
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Freudian Slips and other Trifles

Freudian Slips and other Trifles

On May 6, 1856, Sigmund Freud was born, founder of modern Psychology and Psychoanalysis. As the father of Psychoanalysis, which dealt greater with subconscious motives to behavior, Sigmund Freud alone sculpted what modern psychology would become. His renowned ideas, which have focused on the Id, Ego, and Super-Ego of the mind are still studied to this very day and are employed in the offices of psychologists in some form or another worldwide. Freud’s theories,…
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The Avery-McLeod-McCarthy Experiment

The Avery-McLeod-McCarthy Experiment

On February 1, 1944, physician and medical researcher Oswald Avery together with his colleagues Colin MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty announced that DNA is the hereditary agent in a virus that would transform a virus from a harmless to a pathogenic version. This study was a key work in modern bacteriology. The achievement by the scientists Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty were based on Frederick Griffith’s studies on bacteria, believing that bacteria types were…
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Carl Ludwig and Modern Physiology

Carl Ludwig and Modern Physiology

On December 29, 1816, German physician and physiologist Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig was born. Ludwig was one of the creators of modern physiology. He applied the experimental approach of chemistry and physics to explain the way the body functions. Ludwig investigated the structure of the kidneys and cardiac activity. Carl Ludwig studied medicine in Erlangen and Marburg. At Marburg, he earned his doctor’s degree in 1839 and continued to study and teach anatomy…
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James Blundell and the Blood Transfusion

James Blundell and the Blood Transfusion

On December 27, 1790, English obstetrician James Blundell was born. Blundell researched in the technique of blood transfusion, and was the first in Great Britain to perform the procedure using human blood (rather than animal blood) on 26 Sep 1818 at Guy‘s Hospital, London, where he used an apparatus of his his own design to collect and transfer the blood. James Blundell was born in London, UK, to Major Blundell, who owned…
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Niels Jerne and the Immune System

Niels Jerne and the Immune System

On December 23, 1911, Danish immunologist Niels Kaj Jerne was born. Jerne shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984 with Georges J. F. Köhler and César Milstein “for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies“. An immune system of enormous complexity is present in all vertebrate animals. When we place a population of…
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Ernst von Bergmann and Aseptical Surgery

Ernst von Bergmann and Aseptical Surgery

On December 16 1836 (greg.), Baltic German surgeon Ernst von Bergmann was born. Von Bergmann was a pioneer of aseptic surgery and must undoubtedly be attributed to the greatest surgeons of his time. His main merits are the co-foundation of brain surgery and the introduction of asepsis in wound treatment. Ernst von Bergmann studied medicine in Dorpat and started working as an assistant at the Dorpats Surgical Clinic. In 1864 he habilitated under his…
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