medical science

Karl Landsteiner and the Blood Classification System

Karl Landsteiner and the Blood Classification System

On June 14, 1868, Austrian biologist, physician, and immunologist Karl Landsteiner was born. Landsteiner distinguished the main blood groups in 1900, having developed the modern system of classification of blood groups from his identification of the presence of agglutinins in the blood, and identified, with Alexander S. Wiener, the Rhesus factor, in 1937, thus enabling physicians to transfuse blood without endangering the patient’s life. “A single kind of red cell is supposed…
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Sigmund Freud’s Structural Model of the Human Psyche

Sigmund Freud’s Structural Model of the Human Psyche

On April 24, 1923, Sigmund Freud‘s seminal paper “The Ego and the Id” was published, in which he first introduced his structural model of the human psyche. In this paper, he outlined his theories of the psychodynamics of the id, ego and super-ego, which is of fundamental importance in the development of psychoanalysis. According to this model of the psyche, the id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual trends; the super-ego plays…
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Carl Ludwig – Pioneer of Modern Physiology

Carl Ludwig – Pioneer of Modern Physiology

On December 29, 1816, German physician and physiologist Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig was born. Ludwig was one of the creators of modern physiology. He applied the experimental approach of chemistry and physics to explain the way the body functions. Ludwig investigated the structure of the kidneys and cardiac activity. Early Life Carl Ludwig was born in Witzenhausen an der Werra, near Kassel, Germany. His father was the rent master in Witzenhausen, later promoted…
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James Blundell and the Blood Transfusion

James Blundell and the Blood Transfusion

On December 27, 1790, English obstetrician James Blundell was born. Blundell researched in the technique of blood transfusion, and was the first in Great Britain to perform the procedure using human blood (rather than animal blood) on 26 Sep 1818 at Guy‘s Hospital, London, where he used an apparatus of his his own design to collect and transfer the blood. Early Years James Blundell was born in London, UK, to Major Blundell,…
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Niels Jerne – Explaining the Human Immune System

Niels Jerne – Explaining the Human Immune System

On December 23, 1911, Danish immunologist Niels Kaj Jerne was born. Jerne shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984 with Georges J. F. Köhler and César Milstein “for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies“. “An immune system of enormous complexity is present in all vertebrate animals. When we place a population of…
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Ernst von Bergmann – A Pioneer of Aseptical Surgery

Ernst von Bergmann – A Pioneer of Aseptical Surgery

On December 16 1836 (greg.), Baltic German surgeon Ernst von Bergmann was born. Von Bergmann was a pioneer of aseptic surgery and must undoubtedly be attributed to the greatest surgeons of his time. His main merits are the co-foundation of brain surgery and the introduction of asepsis in wound treatment. “Nature seems to smile to us, and we overlook her secretly threatening finger.” – Ernst von Bergmann, as quoted in [6] Early Years and…
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Dominic Corrigan and Heart Diseases

Dominic Corrigan and Heart Diseases

On December 2, 1802, Irish physician Sir Dominic John Corrigan was born. Corrigan is known for his original observations in heart disease. The abnormal “collapsing” pulse of aortic valve insufficiency is named Corrigan’s pulse after him. Early Years Dominic John Corrigan was born in Thomas Street, Dublin, the son of John Corrigan, a dealer in agricultural tools. He was educated in St. Patrick’s College, Maynooth, near Dublin, which then had a department…
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Jean-Martin Charcot – A Pioneer in Neurology

Jean-Martin Charcot – A Pioneer in Neurology

On November 29, 1825, French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot was born. Charcot is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria, in particular his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes. He is also known as “the founder of modern neurology“, and his name has been associated with at least 15 medical eponyms, including Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease and Charcot disease (better known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neurone disease, or Lou Gehrig…
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August Krogh and the Capillary Motor Regulation Mechanism

August Krogh and the Capillary Motor Regulation Mechanism

On November 15, 1874, Danish zoophysiologist August Krogh was born. Krogh contributed a number of fundamental discoveries within several fields of physiology, and is famous for developing the Krogh Principle, which states that “for such a large number of problems there will be some animal of choice, or a few such animals, on which it can be most conveniently studied.” In 1920 August Krogh was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for…
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Joseph Hamilton and the Health Effects of Radioactive Isotopes

Joseph Hamilton and the Health Effects of Radioactive Isotopes

On November 11, 1907, American professor of Medical Physics, Experimental Medicine, General Medicine, and Experimental Radiology Joseph Gilbert Hamilton was born. Hamilton studied the medical effects of exposure to radioactive isotopes, which also included the use of unsuspecting human subjects. Education and Research in Radionuclides Joseph Hamilton joined the University of California and earned his Bachelors degree in Chemistry in 1929. He continued his education and studied medicine in Berkeley and also worked…
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