On August 2, 47 BC the Roman dictator Gaius Iulius Caesar won the battle of Zela against Pharnaces II. king of Pontus. As the Roman victory was won rather quickly, Caesar wanted to emphasize that very fact by the brevity and conciseness of his report sent to the senate and people of Rome. He only wrote three little words:
“Veni, Vidi, Vici.“
I came, I saw, and I won. That’s all. Nobody ever made a comparable report and his words have been quoted countless times.
Setting the Stage
The city of Zela is located in today’s province Tokat in Turkey and went through many battles throughout her long history. In 548 BC, the city was ruled by the Achamenid Persian Empire and after the division of Anatolia Zela belonged to the region of Pontus. After 200 years, Alexander the Great captured the city and later on it was transferred to the Seleucid Empire. Then many battles occurred and the town was ruled by Sulla, then Mithridates and finally Pompey.
The Battle of Zela
The famous battle of Zela took place in 47 BC when Rome was dominated by civil war, where the party of Caesar was fighting with the party of his old friend and rival Gnaeus Pompeius for political supremacy. Julius Caesar was expecting trouble with the son of Mithridates VI, Pharnaces, afraid he could take revenge for his father. When Caesar arrived in Pontus, his troops were rather small and lacked of discipline. Zela however was a well fortified town surrounded by large mountains and valleys. Pharnaces found out quickly that Caesar had positioned himself where the battle between Mithridates and Triarius took place and got all of his troops ready. Against Caesar’s expectations, Pharnaces began to march onto Caesar’s troops, which were positioned on top of a hill, which is usually of great advantage. However, the surprising attack caused much confusion and many losses on Caesar’s side, because many of his soldiers were not in their fighting positions. The Roman’s were still able to recover from the surprise attack very soon, they could organize their defense and pushed the Pontic army back down the hill. While the battle of Zela was won in only 4 hours time, the entire campaign against Pharnaces lasted five days. To emphasize the brevity of the campaign and Caesar’s military superiority, he carefully chose his words sent to the Roman senate to make the right impression….’veni, vidi, vici‘.
Julius Caesar, however, was a remarkable man. Descending from the Julian patrician family, he completed his official career and came to the consulate in 59 BC through an alliance with the rich Marcus Licinius Crassus and the successful military Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. In the following years Caesar went as proconsul to the northern provinces of Illyria and Gallia Cis- and Transalpina, from where he conquered all of Gaul to the Rhine in the years 58 to 51 BC. In the Roman civil war that followed from 49 to 45 BC, he prevailed over his former ally Pompeius and his followers and gained sole control. After he was appointed dictator for life, he was assassinated. His great-nephew and principal heir Gaius Octavius (later Emperor Augustus) finally established the principate as the new form of government of the Roman Empire.
A Synonym for Emperor
The name of Caesar became part of the title of all subsequent rulers of the Roman Empire. In Roman late antiquity and in the Byzantine Empire, the title “Caesar” denoted a co-ruler or heir to the throne. In the borrowed forms Emperor and Tsar, the name later became the title of the rulers of the Holy Roman, Austrian, German, Bulgarian, Serbian and Russian Empires.
At yovisto academic video search you can watch a talk of author Michael Parenti about the ‘Assassination of Julius Caesar’ the subject of his new book ‘The Assassination of Julius Caesar: a People’s History of Ancient Rome‘.
References and Further Reading:
-  The Roman Army: the Civil Wars 88-31 BC, Nic Fields, Osprey Publishing, 2008
-  The Battle of Zela at livius.org
-  The Battle of Zela in the Wikipedia
-  The Battle of Zela at Wikidata
-  Map with Battles of the Roman Republic during Caesar’s lifetime, via Wikidata