Ernst von Bergmann and Aseptical Surgery

Ernst von Bergmann (1836 - 1907)

Ernst von Bergmann (1836 – 1907)

On December 16 1836 (greg.), Baltic German surgeon Ernst von Bergmann was born. Von Bergmann was a pioneer of aseptic surgery and must undoubtedly be attributed to the greatest surgeons of his time. His main merits are the co-foundation of brain surgery and the introduction of asepsis in wound treatment.

Ernst von Bergmann studied medicine in Dorpat and started working as an assistant at the Dorpats Surgical Clinic. In 1864 he habilitated under his later father-in-law Georg Adelmann, who was later promoted to Prussian nobility, and Georg von Oettingen. During the 1870s he started a journey to study in various cities including Königsberg, Breslau, Vienna, Hanover, Munich, Heidelberg, Leipzig, and Berlin. Afterwards he was appointed Professor of Surgery in Würzburg and later took over the chair of Bernhard von Langenbeck in Berlin and directed the the Surgical University Hospital.

During his career, Ernst von Bergmann gained rich experiences in war surgery, especially during the Prussian-Austrian war, the German-French war and the Russian-Turkish war. Von Bergmann was able to treat knee joint injuried wihout surgery which was groundbreaking. After bandaging the patient he applied the Lister wound dressing in a plaster dressing to immobilize the patient. With this method the fatalities of this injury could be significantly reduced.  At first he turned to the Listerian method of antisepsis by spraying with carbolic acid, which he practiced at his village hospital since 1875, he soon replaced this dangerous method with the use of dry sublimate gauze, and finally left the chemical antisepsis completely in 1886. Together with his Berlin student Curt Schimmelbusch, he turned to the use of steam-sterilized dressing materials.

Ernst von Bergmann in surgery with his colleagues

Ernst von Bergmann in surgery with his colleagues

Further, Ernst von Bergmann developed and improved several surgical methods including appendectomy, and oesophagus and hydrocyle surgery. To his most important publications belong his 1878 work Die Behandlung der Schußwunden des Kniegelenkes im Kriege (On the treatment of gunshot wounds of the knee joint during the war) as well as Die Lehre von den Kopfverletzungen (The Doctrine of Head Injuries) and Die chirurgische Behandlung der Hirnkrankheiten (The Surgical Treatment of Brain Diseases).  During his career, Ernst von Bergmann was also called in for the treatment of the malignant laryngeal disease of Emperor Frederick III, in which his student Friedrich Gustav von Bramann performed a tracheotomy.

Ernst von Bergmann became a member of the Leopoldina and President of the German Society of Surgery. In 1893 he was chairman of the Society of German Natural Scientists and Physicians. In 1904, von Bergmann was co-founder of the journal for continuing medical education, which continues to this day under the name Zeitschrift für ärztliche Fortbildung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen.

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