On March 26, 1941, English ethologist, evolutionary biologist and author Richard Dawkins was born. Dawkins first came to prominence with his 1976 book The Selfish Gene, which popularised the gene-centred view of evolution and introduced the term meme. With his book The Extended Phenotype (1982), he introduced into evolutionary biology the influential concept that the phenotypic effects of a gene are not necessarily limited to an organism’s body, but can stretch far into the environment.
Richard Dawkins studied zoology at Balliol College, Oxford, graduating in 1962. There he was tutored by Nikolaas Tinbergen and continued as a research student under Tinbergen’s supervision, receiving his MA and doctorate degrees by 1966, and remained a research assistant for another year. While Tinbergen researched animal behaviour, Dawkin mainly focused on models of animal decision-making.
At the University of California, Berkeley Dawking was assistant professor of zoology and became a lecturer at the University of Oxford in 1970. In 1995, he was appointed Simonyi Professor for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford, a position he held until 2008. In 2011, Dawkins joined the professoriate of the New College of the Humanities, a new private university in London, established by A. C. Grayling, which opened in September 2012.
In the field of evolutionary biology, Richard Dawkin is best known for his popularisation of the gene as the principal unit of selection in evolution. His most influential works on the matter are titled The Selfish Gene, published in 1976 and The Extended Phenotype, published in 1982. The former was built upon the principal theory of George C. Williams’s Adaptation and Natural Selection, published in 1966. In his work, Dawkins uses the term ‘selfish gene’ as a way of expressing the gene-centred view of evolution as opposed to the views focused on the organism and the group. From the gene-centred view, it follows that the more two individuals are genetically related, the more sense it makes for them to behave selflessly with each other. A lineage is further expected to evolve to maximise its inclusive fitness. The number of copies of its genes are passed on globally, rather than by a particular individual. As a result, populations will tend towards an evolutionarily stable strategy. In The Selfish Gene, the term meme is coined for a unit of human cultural evolution analogous to the gene, suggesting that such selfish replication may also model human culture, in a different sense.
From the beginning, The Selfish Gene was extremely successful and has been translated into more than 25 languages. Proponents argue that the central point, that replicating the gene is the object of selection, usefully completes and extends the explanation of evolution given by Charles Darwin before the basic mechanisms of genetics were understood.
References and Further Reading:
- The Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science
- Richard Dawkins at TED
- Richard Dawkins in a Conversation with Adam Rutherford
- The Selfish Gene – 30 Years On