On November 26, 1862, Hungarian-British archaeologist Sir Marc Aurel Stein was born. Stein is primarily known for his explorations and archaeological discoveries in Central Asia. Stein was also an ethnographer, geographer, linguist and surveyor. His collection of books and manuscripts taken from Dunhuang caves is important for the study of the history of Central Asia and the art and literature of Buddhism. When the Dunhuang Caves, China, closed for centuries, were reopened, Stein discovered 15,000 manuscripts (1907), including the Diamond Sutra, reputed to be the first dated printed book (868 A.D.) .
Marc Aurel Stein wsa born in Budapest and was educated in Greek, Latin, French, and English before going on for advanced study at Universities of Vienna, Leipzig and Tübingen. He graduated in Sanskrit and Persian Language and received his Ph.D. from Tübingen in 1883. Already one year later, he went to England to study oriental languages and archaeology. Stein became a British citizen and also received British sponsorship for his expeditions. In India, Stein joined the Punjab University as Registrar and later, between 1888 and 1899, he was the Principal of Oriental College, Lahore.
Aurel Stein made four major expeditions to Central Asia—in 1900–1901, 1906–1908, 1913–1916 and 1930. The explorer managed to bring light to the hidden treasure of a great civilization which by then was practically lost to the world. One of his significant finds during his first journey during 1900–1901 was the Taklamakan Desert oasis of Dandan Oilik where he was able to uncover a number of relics. During his third expedition in 1913–1916, he excavated at Khara-Khoto. The British Library’s Stein collection of Chinese, Tibetan and Tangut manuscripts, Prakrit wooden tablets, and documents in Khotanese, Uyghur, Sogdian and Eastern Turkic is the result of his travels through central Asia during the 1920s and 1930s. Stein discovered manuscripts in the previously lost Tocharian languages of the Tarim Basin at Miran and other oasis towns, and recorded numerous archaeological sites especially in Iran and Balochistan. When Stein visited Khotan he was able to render in Persian a portion of the Shahnama after he came across a local reading the Shahnama in Turki.
However, Aurel Stein’s greatest discovery was made at the Mogao Caves also known as “Caves of the Thousand Buddhas”, near Dunhuang in 1907. It was there that he discovered a printed copy of the Diamond Sutra, the world’s oldest printed text, dating to AD 868, along with 40,000 other scrolls which were all removed by gradually winning the confidence and bribing the Taoist caretaker. Stein managed to acquire 24 cases of manuscripts and 4 cases of paintings and relics.
Aurel Stein was knighted for his efforts, however, Chinese nationalists dubbed him a burglar and staged protests against him. Stein was further awarded the Founder’s Medal by the Royal Geographical Society ‘for his extensive explorations in Central Asia, and in particular his archaeological work’. Next to several further gold medals, Stein received the first Campbell Memorial Gold Medal by the Royal Asiatic Society of Bombay.
References and Further Reading:
-  Aurel Stein at Britannica
-  Sir Aurel Stein at the Victoria and Albert Museum Website
-  The very first printed book, SciHi Blog, May 11, 2014.
-  Sir Aurel Stein at Wikidata