On January 24, 1984, Steve Jobs presented the the very first Macintosh, which became the first commercially successful personal computer with a mouse and a graphical user interface to the public.
Although the 128K was not Apple Inc’s first computer on the market, it depicted a milestone. The Apple I was released in 1976, it was sold as a motherboard and would not fulfill today’s requirements for the term ‘personal computer‘, but just one year later, the Apple II glanced at the market with its cell based color graphics, its open architecture and the introduction of the floppy disk drive rivaling the TRS-80 and Commodore PET. Back then Apple faced a great start into their first sells due to the programm ‘VisiCalc‘, a spreadsheet programm developed for the computer, making Apple computers suitable in people’s homes as in offices for serious calculations. Another milestone set the computer ‘Lisa’ by the Apple company . It depicted the first computer to feature a mouse as well as a graphical user interface and icons, the development was highly influenced by Xerox and up to this day it is not clear how big their influence actually was. However, Lisa’s technological improvements and its great usability were not of much use since the computer cost US$9,995 in 1983, when it was released. Unfortunately, the business success of Lisa failed to appear, but the company released the Macintosh 128K just one year later.
Historical was not only the computer itself, but also the way it was presented. Apple chose the famous Superbowl commercials as the right platform to present a commercial that definitely stayed in peoples minds. It starts with a dystopic setting and a line of people marching through a monitored tunnel. Contrasts are used to emphasize the brightly colored runner wearing a cubist picture of the Macintosh carrying a large hammer while being chased by police men. Racing towards a huge screen showing ‘Big Brother’ giving a speech, she smashes the hammer right into the screen destroying it completely, while ‘Big Brother’ shouts “We shall prevail!”. The commercial ends with a voiceover and a scolling text saying “On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like 1984“. The allusion to George Orwell‘s 1984  overwhelmed the viewers and was hailed by the advertising industry as a masterpiece winning numerous awards. However, the television commercial and Steve Job’s demonstration two days later paved the way for a great commercial success of the company and its competitive position on the market.
But besides the special attention the Macintosh 128K received due to the commercial, it also came with many technical features guaranteeing its success. The improved graphical interface used the metaphor of a desktop and files appearing like paper sheets as well as the ability to drag and drop files into the ‘trash can’. More accessories on the desktop depicted a calculator, notepad and alarm clock which could be placed as desired. The machine was equipped with a Motorola 68000 microprocessor connected to 128 kB DRAM by a 16-bit data bus as well as with a 400kB 3.5 inch single sided floppy disk drive. The Macintosh 128K was sold about 70,000 times by May 1984 and superseded by the Macintosh 512K.
References and Further Reading:
-  Macintosh 128k History
-  Macintosh 128k at Computing History
-  1984 Macintosh Commercial
-  Who remembers Apple’s Lisa?, SciHi Blog January 19, 2014.
-  George Orwell’s Opposition to Totalitarism, SciHi Blog, January 21, 2018
-  Intel 4004 – The World’s First Microprocessor, SciHi Blog, November 15, 2012
-  The Publication of the First Web Page, SciHi Blog, November 13, 2012.
-  Apple Inc. at Wikidata
-  Steve Jobs Timeline at Wikidata