Theodore von Kármán and his Advances in Aerodynamics

Theodore von Kármán (center) during his work at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 1940

Theodore von Kármán (center) during his work at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 1940

On May 11, 1881, Hungarian-American mathematician, aerospace engineer and physicist Theodore von Kármán was born. Kármán was active primarily in the fields of aeronautics and astronautics. He is responsible for many key advances in aerodynamics, notably his work on supersonic and hypersonic airflow characterization.

Theodore von Kármán studied engineering at the Budapest’s Royal Joseph Technical University. He then moved to Germany joining Ludwig Prandtl at the University of Göttingen. There, Kármán received his doctorate in 1908. Before accepting a position as director of the Aeronautical Institute at RWTH AachenKármán taught at Göttingen for several years. However, his time at RWTH Aachen was interrupted by service in the Austro-Hungarian Army from 1915 to 1918, during which time he designed the Petróczy-Kármán-Žurovec, an early helicopter. After the war he returned to Aachen with his mother and sister Josephine de Kármán. They organized the first international conference in mechanics held in September 1922 in Innsbruck.

Due to the political situation in Europe during the 1930s, the engineer migrated to the United States where he became director of the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology. One of his students was Ernest Edwin Sechler, who started working on thin-shell structures. With the help of Theodore von Kármán, Sechler was able to tackle the problem of making reliable airframes for aircraft and developed an understanding of aeroelasticity.

U. S. Stamp Theodore von Karman

U. S. Stamp Theodore von Karman

Along with his graduate student Frank Malina, the lawyer Andrew G. Haley, and the experimental rocketry collaborator Jack Parsons, Theodore von Kármán formed the Aerojet Corporation to manufacture JATO rocket motors . During World War II, the US military invested more and more in rocket research. The Experimental Engineering Division of the United States Army Air Forces Material Command forwarded to Kármán reports from British intelligence sources describing German rockets capable of travelling more than 100 miles (160 km) and Kármán provided the Army with his analysis of and comments on the German program.

Theodore von Kármán became co-founder of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, now a Federally funded research and development center managed and operated by Caltech under a contract from NASAKármán became the chairman of the Scientific Advisory Group in 1946. He also became an important figure in supersonic motion. He noted in a seminal paper that aeronautical engineers were “pounding hard on the closed door leading into the field of supersonic motion.” Kármán’s fame was in the use of mathematical tools to study fluid flow, and the interpretation of those results to guide practical designs. He was instrumental in recognizing the importance of the swept-back wings that are ubiquitous in modern jet aircraft.

From its foundation in 1956 until his death, von Kármán was head of the Von Karman Institute of Fluid Mechanics in Belgium. He died during a cure in Aachen in 1963. Theodor von Kármán was an honorary member or member of 41 national scientific societies in twelve different countries. He was awarded honorary doctorates 28 times, including honorary doctorates from three German universities, in 1953 from RWTH Aachen University.

At yovisto academic video search you can learn more about Aerodynamics – from Sub- to Hypersonic and Back in a lecture by Bass Redd at MIT.

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