The Works of Lord Avebury

John Lubbock

1882 caricature of John Lubbock

On April 30, 1834, banker, Liberal politician, philanthropist, scientist and polymath John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury was born. He was a banker and worked with his family’s company, but also made significant contributions in archaeology, ethnography, and several branches os biology. He helped establish archaeology as a scientific discipline, and was also influential in nineteenth-century debates concerning evolutionary theory. John Lubbock also coined the terms Neolithic and Paleolithic.

John Lubbock was born in 1834 and grew up in the family home of High Elms Estate, near Downe in Kent. A story from Lubbock’s childhood is reported in which his father one day came home with a “great piece of news”. Later, Lubbock said that he initially thought his father got him a pony, and was quite disappointed when finding out that it was ‘only’ Charles Darwin moving to Down House in their village. However, the boy became a frequent visitor at Down house and established a close friendship to Darwin, which stimulated Lubbock’s passion for science as well.

Lubbock enrolled at Eton College in 1845 and was later employed at his father’s bank where he was announced as a partner at the age of only 22. As his interest in politics evolved, Lubbock was elected Liberal Party Member of Parliament. His goals were the promotion of science and the study of science in primary and secondary schools, national debt as well as free trade, the protection of ancient monuments and the improvements of the working class’ conditions. In 1879Lubbock was elected the first president of the Institute of Bankers and in 1886 president of the Linnean Society of London.

However, next to working at his father’s bank, Lubbock also had a great interest in archaeology and evolutionary theory. Along with Sir John Evans, he collected Iron Age antiquities at the site of Hallstatt in Austria. The findings are now in the collection of the British MuseumLubbock also spoke in support of the evolutionist Thomas Henry Huxley at the famous 1860 Oxford evolution debate. During the 1860s, he published many articles in which he used archaeological evidence to support Darwin’s theory. He manage to hold a number of very influential academic positions, including President of the Ethnological Society, and the President of the International Congress of Prehistoric Archaeology in 1868Lubbock also managed to publish the textbook ‘Pre-Historic Times’ which became a standard work with seven editions and was illustrated by ancient remains. His major work ‘On the Origin of Civilization’ was published in 1870. He is known for introducing the terms “Palaeolithic” and “Neolithic” to denote the Old and New Stone Ages respectively. More notably, Lubbock introduced a Darwinian-type theory of human nature and development. “What was new was Lubbock’s … insistence that, as a result of natural selection, human groups had become different from each other, not only culturally, but also in their biological capacities to utilize culture.”

At yovisto you may learn more about Darwin through the video lecture ‘Darwin and the Origin‘ by Mike Moser.

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