|Jean-Baptiste le Rond d’Alembert
(1717 – 1783)
On November 16, 1717, French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist Jean Baptiste le Rond d’Alembert was born. He was co-editor with Denis Diderot of the famous Encyclopédie, edited between 1751 and 1772.
D’Alembert was born in Paris and entered the famous ‘Collége Mazarin’ at the age of 12, where he studied law, as well as philosophy and arts. His educators noticed d’Alembert’s talent and supported him to begin an ecclesiastical career, which he rejected. D’Alembert understood theology as “rather unsubstantial fodder“, he soon attended law school and researched on mathematics as well as medicine diligently.
His first success was reached at the age of 22, when d’Alembert noticed mathematical errors in Charles René Reynaud’s work ‘L’analyse démontrée‘, which he made public. He was instantly known widely across the scientific community, because of improving a standard work, learned by every student of mathematics. His reputation continued to improve through publishing his work on fluid mechanics and refraction. D’Alembert’s most famous work (besides the encyclopedia) was published in 1743, it was called ‘Traité de dynamique‘, and explained the laws of motion, which he developed himself.
The probably most important and most influential work of d’Alembert was his contribution to the famous ‘Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers‘. An encyclopedia in French language. The masterpiece was published by d’Alembert along with Denis Diderot and counts as one of the most important works of the Age of Enlightenment.
|Figurative system of human knowledge|
The idea of the encyclopedia was to collect all current human knowledge and to make it accessible to everyone. Special was though, that the publishers saw the necessity to make visible all relations between the single articles. Through cross-references, it was made easier to look for and understand the content and therefore get broadly based information on a specific topic. The work is based on the ‘arbor porphyriana‘ (tree of knowledge) by Francis Bacon. Bacon himself was a widely known philosopher, scientist and a pioneer of empiricism. The encyclopedia by Diderot and d’Alembert is seen as a turning point in epistemology, they supported Locke’s theory of the development of knowledge though experience and rejected the methods by Carthesius and Aquins. The work followed the principle of social equality, it rejected the church’s believes, and measured all human interactions on the theory of reason. The work was accepted well by society due to its easy understanding and its good usability due to the cross-references, a new way of the freedom of thought was developed.
D’Alembert edited more than a thousand articles in the encyclopedia in which he was mainly responsible for mathematical problems. Besides the encyclopedia, d’Alembert researched on further mathematical and philosophical problems, such as his laws of motion, wherefore he counts as the father of mathematical physics. D’Alembert’s achievements were essential to the scientific and cultural development of society during the enlightenment and his contributions count as indispensable for this period.
At yovisto, you may enjoy the mathematical lecture on d’Alembert’s famous wave equation by Dr. Chris Tisdell.
References and Further Reading:
- D’Alembert at Wolfram’s Scienceworld
- D’Alembert in the Wikipedia
- D’Alembert at Britannica
- O’Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., “Jean le Rond d’Alembert“, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- Jean le Rond d’Alembert at zbMATH
- D’Alembert at Wikidata
- Timeline for Jean le Rond d’Alembert, via Wikidata
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