On March 9, 1758, German neuroanatomist and physiologist Franz Josef Gall was born. Galle was a pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain and claimed as the founder of phrenology.
Franz Joseph Gall was born near Pforzheim and originally intended to devote his life to priesthood. He was first educated by his uncle and later studied medicine in Strasbourg. It was probably in Strasbourg where he was introduced to the works of Johann Hermann, who taught that there was a close relationship between Man and apes and introduced Gall to comparative anatomy. In the 1780s, Gall continued his studies in Vienna, where he was highly influenced by Maximilian Stoll. Franz Joseph Gall reiceived his doctor of medicine in 1785 and became a successful, well-connected, private physician in Vienna.
In the 1790s, Gall was convinced to have discovered localized regions of the cerebral cortex where innate universal faculties resided. He called these regions organs as common in Vienna back in the day. Gall developed the theory of Organology and the method of Cranioscopy that would later be known as Phrenology. Gall’s version of Organology states that the mind is a collection of independent entities housed within the brain. Cranioscopy is a method to determine the personality and development of mental and moral faculties on the basis of the external shape of the skull. During his lifetime, Gall collected and observed over 120 skulls in order to test his hypotheses.
Franz Joseph Gall probably believed that the bumps and uneven geography of the human skull were caused by pressure exerted from the brain underneath. In his studies, Gall devided the brain into sections. These corresponded to certain behaviors and traits that he called fundamental faculties. This is referred to as localization of function. The scientist believed that among the 27 fundamental faculties were mechanical ability, talent for poetry, love of property, and also a murder instinct. Gall further made assumptions about that person’s fundamental faculties and therefore their character.
Gall’s concepts on brain localization were revolutionary, and caused religious leaders and some scientists to take exception. Many attempted to discredit Gall because they believed he had not given rightful credit to the theories and scientists who influenced him. Étienne-Jean Georget accused Gall of stealing Charles Bonnet’s basic idea of brain localization that he had written about over 60 years earlier. His ideas were also not acceptable to the court of Josef II. The Austrian government accused Gall of being a materialist and banned his ideas because of their threat to public morality wherefore he left his lecturer position in Austria. However, his phrenological theories and practices were best accepted in England and later the United States.
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