psychology

B.F. Skinner and Radical Behaviorism

B.F. Skinner and Radical Behaviorism

On March 20, 1904, American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher Burrhus Frederic (B. F.) Skinner was born. His pioneering work in experimental psychology promoted behaviorism, shaping behavior through positive and negative reinforcement and demonstrated operant conditioning. The “Skinner box” he used in experiments from 1930 remains famous. Burrhus Frederic Skinner was born March 20, 1904. Skinner grew up in a small town in Pennsylvania as the son of a lawyer. Skinner received his…
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Alfred Adler and the Individual Psychology

Alfred Adler and the Individual Psychology

On February 7, 1870, Austrian psychiatrist and ophthalmologist Alfred W. Adler was born. He is best known for being the founder of the school of individual psychology. Alfred Adler considered human beings as an individual whole, therefore he called his psychology “Individual Psychology“. Moreover, Adler also was the first to emphasize the importance of the social element in the re-adjustment process of the individual and who carried psychiatry into the community. Alfred…
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Lewis Terman and the Intelligence Quotient

Lewis Terman and the Intelligence Quotient

On January 15, 1877, American psychologist Lewis Madison Terman was born. He is best known for his pioneering work in individual intelligence tests as well as for his revision of the Stanford-Binet IQ test, with which he introduced the IQ (Intelligence Quotient), being a ratio of chronological age to mental age times 100. Lewis Terman was raised on a farm became a school teacher as well as high school principal in his…
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Masters and Johnson – The Masters of Sex

Masters and Johnson – The Masters of Sex

On December 27, 1915, American gynecologist William Howell Masters was born. He is best known as the senior member of the Masters and Johnson sexuality research team. Along with Virginia E. Johnson, he pioneered research into the nature of human sexual response and the diagnosis and treatment of sexual dysfunctions and disorders from 1957 until the 1990s. Probably you might have heard of  them because of the popular tv series ‘Masters of Sex‘ that…
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Karen Horney’s Struggle with Neurosis

Karen Horney’s Struggle with Neurosis

On December 4, 1952, German Neo-Freudian psychoanalyst Karen Horney passed away. Her theories questioned some traditional Freudian views. This was particularly true of her theories of sexuality and of the instinct orientation of psychoanalysis. She is credited with founding feminist psychology in response to Freud’s theory of penis envy.[4] She disagreed with Freud about inherent differences in the psychology of men and women, and she traced such differences to society and culture rather…
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Hermann ‘Klecks’ Rorschach and his Eponymous Test

Hermann ‘Klecks’ Rorschach and his Eponymous Test

On November 8, 1884, Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Hermann Rorschach was born. He is best known for developing a projective test known as the Rorschach inkblot test. This test was reportedly designed to reflect unconscious parts of the personality that “project” onto the stimuli. Hermann Rorschach was born in Zurich, Switzerland and it is known was he was encouraged by his father, an art teacher, to express himself creatively. The young Rorschach became fascinated with making pictures out of…
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Pavlov and the Conditional Reflex

Pavlov and the Conditional Reflex

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) On September 27, 1849, Russian physiologist and Nobel Laureate Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born. He is primarily known primarily for his work in classical conditioning. And what is the first thing you will think about when you hear Pavlov‘s name? Well, probably his experiments with dogs, where he conditioned dogs to salivate when hearing a bell ringing because they expected to get food. But, let’s take a closer…
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The psychologist must study mankind from the historical or comparative standpoint – Moritz Lazarus

The psychologist must study mankind from the historical or comparative standpoint – Moritz Lazarus

Moritz Lazarus and Nahilda Lazarus-Remy ca.1895 On September 15, 1824, German philosopher and psychologist Moritz Lazarus was born. He held that humanity must be studied from the historical, comparative viewpoint, analyzing the elements that constitute the fabric of society, with its customs, its conventions, and the main tendencies of its evolution. He was Jewish and a leading opponent of anti-Semitism in his time. Moritz Lazarus received a Jewish education, taking classes in…
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Alfred Binet and the Intelligence Test

Alfred Binet and the Intelligence Test

Alfred Binet (1857 – 1911) On July 8, 1857, French psychologist Alfred Binet was born. He was a pioneer in the field of intelligence testing of the normal mind. He took a different approach than most psychologists of his day: he was interested in the workings of the normal mind. He invented the first practical intelligence test, the Binet-Simon scale rather than the pathology of mental illness. After earning a law degree in 1878,…
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