Monthly Archives: July 2014

Samuel Goudsmit and the Electron Spin

Samuel Goudsmit and the Electron Spin

George Uhlenbeck, Hendrik Kramers, and Samuel Goudsmit in 1928 On July 11, 1902, Dutch-born U.S. physicist Samuel Abraham Goudsmit was born. He is best known for the formulation of the concept of electron spin together with George Eugene Uhlenbeck. It led to recognition that spin was a property of protons, neutrons, and most elementary particles and to a fundamental change in the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics. If you not happen…
Camille Pissaro and the Impressionistic Art Movement

Camille Pissaro and the Impressionistic Art Movement

Camille Pissarro (1830–1903) On July 10, 1830, Danish–French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter Camille Pissaro was born. His importance resides in his contributions to both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. He acted as a father figure not only to the Impressionists but to all four of the major Post-Impressionists, including Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin. Jacob Abraham Camille Pissarro was born on the island of St. Thomas in…
John Wheeler and the Golden Age of General Relativity

John Wheeler and the Golden Age of General Relativity

Eckehard W. Mielke together with John Archibald Wheeler in 1985 Image: Eckard Mielke On July 9, 1911, American theoretical physicist John Archibald Wheeler was born. Wheeler worked with Niels Bohr in explaining the basic principles behind nuclear fission as well as with Albert Einstein, with whom he tried to achieve Einstein’s vision of a unified field theory. He is also known for popularizing the term black hole, and for coining the terms…
Alfred Binet and the Intelligence Test

Alfred Binet and the Intelligence Test

Alfred Binet (1857 – 1911) On July 8, 1857, French psychologist Alfred Binet was born. He was a pioneer in the field of intelligence testing of the normal mind. He took a different approach than most psychologists of his day: he was interested in the workings of the normal mind. He invented the first practical intelligence test, the Binet-Simon scale rather than the pathology of mental illness. After earning a law degree…
Rudolf Wolf and the Sunspots

Rudolf Wolf and the Sunspots

Rudolf Wolf (1816.1893) On July 7, 1816, Swiss astronomer and astronomical historian Rudolf Wolf was born. Wolf’s main contribution was the discovery of the 11 year sunspot cycle and he was the co-discoverer of its connection with geomagnetic activity on Earth. Johann Rudolf Wolf was born in Fällanden, near Zurich, to Regula Gossweiler and Johannes Wolf, who was a minister in the Church. After studying at the Zurich Industrieschule, Wolf attended the…
Rudolf Albert von Kölliker and the Origins of Embriology

Rudolf Albert von Kölliker and the Origins of Embriology

Rudolf von Kölliker (1817-1902) On July 6, 1817, Swiss anatomist and physiologist Rudolf Albert von Kölliker was born. He was one of the founders of embryology. His thorough microscopic work on tissues enabled him to be among the first to identify their structure. He showed that they were made up of cells, that did not freely come into being, but must develop from existing cells. Rudolph Albert Kölliker was born in Zurich, Switzerland.…
A. E. Douglass and the Dendrochronology

A. E. Douglass and the Dendrochronology

Drill to take samples for dendrochronology from trees Image by Wikimedia User Hannes Grobe On July 5, 1867, American astronomer and archeologist A. E. (Andrew Ellicott) Douglass was born. He coined the name dendrochronology for tree-ring dating, a field he originated while working at the Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona, by his discovery a correlation between tree rings and the sunspot cycle. A. E. Douglass was not the first, who suggested that…
Rube Goldberg’s complicated Machines

Rube Goldberg’s complicated Machines

Rube Goldberg (1883–1970) in 1916 On July 4, 1883, American cartoonist, sculptor, author, engineer and inventor Reuben Garrett Lucius “Rube” Goldberg was born. He is best known for a series of popular cartoons depicting complicated gadgets that perform simple tasks in indirect, convoluted ways. Goldberg received many honors in his lifetime, including a Pulitzer Prize for his political cartooning in 1948. Reuben Lucius Goldberg was born July 4, 1883, in San…
Ottmar Mergenthaler – a Second Gutenberg

Ottmar Mergenthaler – a Second Gutenberg

Ottmar Mergenthaler (1854–1899) Photo taken at age 25 in 1879 On July 3, 1886, the first Linotype machine invented by German inventor Ottmar Mergenthaler commenced operation for the New York Tribune. The Linotype was the first device that could easily and quickly set complete lines of type for use in printing presses and revolutionized the art of printing. Along with letterpress printing, linotype was the industry standard for newspapers, magazines…
Hans Bethe and the Energy of the Stars

Hans Bethe and the Energy of the Stars

Hans Bethe interviewed by journalists (1906 – 2005) On July 2, 1906, German and American nuclear physicist and Nobel Laureate Hans Albrecht Bethe was born. Bethe helped to shape classical physics into quantum physics and increased the understanding of the atomic processes responsible for the properties of matter and of the forces governing the structures of atomic nuclei. Hans Bethe entered the University of Frankfurt in 1924, majoring in chemistry. However,…
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